Welcome to Saturday Book Review time! On most of the Saturdays this year we’re looking at a liturgy-related book noting (as applicable) its accessibility, devotional usefulness, and reference value. Or, how easy it is to read, the prayer life it engenders, and how much it can teach you.
In 1979, after several years of experimentation and trial-use liturgies, the Episcopal Church (USA) promulgated a revolutionary new Prayer Book. It was a massive tome, compared to its predecessors, with all sorts of exciting new features. The Daily Office and Communion services were offered in both traditional and contemporary English. Multiple rites (especially prayers of consecration) for the Communion service were provided. The minor offices of Noonday Prayer and Compline were added. The Imposition of Ashes, the Liturgy of the Palms, a Good Friday liturgy, instructions for a traditional approach to Holy Saturday, and an Easter Vigil liturgy all brought catholic tradition into the Prayer Book (where high church parishes previously had to rely upon supplementary material if they wanted to hold such traditions). The liturgies for Ministration to the Sick and the Dying were expanded. A new translation of the Psalter was made. The additional prayers for the Daily Office turned into a massive compilation of over 100 prayers and thanksgivings, neatly ordered and numbered for ease of use. New lectionaries were made. There’s a new (longer) catechism. Additional “historical documents” were appended to the volume, along with The 39 Articles of Religion.
Pretty much all of these were firsts for the Prayer Book tradition. It is hard to speak ill of that, especially when much of the expanded content was already in use by many traditionalists, and its inclusion in the Prayer Book enabled further standardization and propagation of said practices, even breaking the highchurch / lowchurch barrier.
But there are a number of issues that have been raised with this book.
The changes in style, order, and content to the primary liturgies (Daily Office and Communion) are major departures from all previous Prayer Books. Many of the changes to the Roman Rite in the wake of their 2nd Vatican Council were imitated in our changes to the Anglican liturgies, especially in the calendars and the order of the Communion service. Some would describe the 1979 book’s results as a bland and generic western catholicism that is neither Roman nor Anglican.
The Baptism liturgy contains perhaps the most criticized feature of the 1979 book: the “baptismal covenant.” It takes the biblical and traditional idea of the baptized person(s) committing him/herself to Christ, and expands it into a whole contract – or covenant – by which the individual is united to Christ. Internet articles abound in picking apart just how poorly this innovation to the Baptism liturgy was devised. On a related note, some also point out that the way this book emphasizes (and arguably redefines) Holy Baptism, the rite of Confirmation ends up being pushed aside as extraneous – a concern that is further highlighted by the fact that Confirmation was no longer the requirement for entry to Holy Communion. The liturgies for Holy Matrimony and Ordination have also been somewhat liberalized from previous books.
There is also the question of the contemporary language itself. This was very strongly desired by many Episcopalians at the time, and very strongly opposed by others. While that controversy and argument still exists today, I think there is a little more peaceful coexistence between the two views now. But the quality and precision of the contemporary English is still somewhat up for grabs. As we’ve seen in the process of creating our 2019 Prayer Book, the delicate interplay between faithfulness to the wording of the Bible, consistency with the wording of previous Prayer Books, and accessibility of style and vocabulary to the modern reader is a difficult game to play. Our recent examination of the Daily Office “lesser litany” illustrates this well. Or, more bluntly, a quick reading of the 1979 book’s Eucharistic Prayer C makes it immediately obvious that some of this book is too much a product of its generation and lacks that ‘timeless’ quality that will appeal to the next generation(s) thereafter. (That prayer is nicknamed the “Star Wars” or “Star Trek” Prayer.)
For better and for worse, this has been the standard Prayer Book for the majority of Anglicans in this country for a few decades now. It was my first Prayer Book, too, and I used it faithfully and happily for about four years before I began to see just how different it was from the 1662 book. At that point I started weaning myself off of it, using the new ACNA materials available and drawing from more traditional material to “fill in the gaps” for the time being. I learned that the Prayer Book tradition’s roots look quite different from the 1979 book… but that isn’t the case for a lot of people; to many this book is the Prayer Book, and (if they’re in the ACNA) the 2019 will be the next Prayer Book. In a way, I think that perspective is more damaging. The 1979 book, for all its innovation, still does have a strong “Prayer Book” origin to it, and if you familiarize yourself with classical prayer book tradition then you can find that traditional core to the ’79 pretty easily and use it fruitfully. But without that second foot in Anglican history, one’s use of the ’79 is going to be rather blind and untethered, tossed on the sea of alternate liturgies and options that transformed a 600-page book into 1,000.
The ratings in short:
Due to the multiple versions and options of the primary liturgies, and the fact that most of the pastoral and episcopal liturgies are typically intended to be part of a Communion service, the page-flipping required to hold one worship service directly from this book is terribly excessive. If you’re a liturgy nerd, or very patient, or have a cheat-sheet-style bookmark with all the page numbers for the service, then you can do it. But this book doesn’t make it easy. Also due to the page-flipping required, it’s easy to miss the rubrics at the end of sections which sometimes point to even more options. Judicious use of “go to page ___” instructions would have mitigated some of these challenges, and I think the 2019 book looks like it’s learning that particular lesson.
Devotional Usefulness: 3/5
If you can get past the accessibility issues, there are plenty of good things in this book to feed the Christian soul. Despite the changes, the Daily Office and Communion services still contain good, godly, biblical, and even Anglican prayers. There is a fair bit of chaff to omit here and there, but it’s usually not too intrusive. The prayers at time of death and anointing of the sick are also handy references for pastoral emergencies. Though I’m happy to never have to use its baptism, confirmation, matrimony, or ordination services.
Reference Value: 1/5
Honestly, because the 2019 book is looking to be very similar to the 1979 in terms of general content, there’s basically no reason to pull this book off the shelf anymore. We can trace the historical changes from 1928 to 1979 to 2019, but that’s largely of academic interest, and of little use to the average church-goer or minister. Furthermore, because most of the changes from the 1979 to the 2019 are “roll-backs” toward classical Anglican content, the 1979 book represents a sort of liturgical dead end: the tradition went too far in one direction, and now we’ve reeled it in somewhat.
So we’re at a point now where I no longer give out copies of the 1979 Prayer Book to anyone. I’m not an Episcopalian, it’s #notmyprayerbook, and I’d much rather point people to the corrected, more traditional and biblical 2019 material. That being said, I’m not a hater. The 1979 is where I first delved into the Anglican tradition, and my extensive study of that book gave me a leg-up in understanding what’s going on with the 2019 book. The 1979 BCP has served its purpose, done its time, and is now ready to enjoy a (very) quiet retirement.