As the future King, David, is running around finding new places to hide in the later chapters of 1 Samuel (which we’ve been reading lately in morning prayer), so now have my family and I just moved a few miles to a new home too. It’s wonderful to have space for the kids to play outside without having to watch out for cars, and (soon) set up a home office where I can write for you all from a proper workspace rather than the couch or the kitchen table.
This means, however, that I will not be able to keep up these posts for a few days, until our internet is connected and the boxes are a little more unpacked.
The Great Litany is the oldest piece of liturgy in the English language; it was the first “worship service” that Cranmer assembled, a few years before the first Prayer Book was promulgated. It has been changed a little bit over the centuries, but on the whole is probably the “most original” piece of Reformation Anglican liturgy in our (or any) Prayer Book.
It’s also supposed to be very simple: start at the beginning and finish at the end, but in the 2019 Prayer Book (similar to what you see in the 1979 Book) it has three different endings! What gives? Welcome to Weird Rubric Wednesday.
The earliest rubrical ending is on page 96. When the Litany is sung or said immediately before the Eucharist, the Litany concludes here [between the Kyrie and the Lord’s Prayer] and the Eucharist begins with the Salutation and the Collect of the Day. This is a modern option inherited from the 1979 Prayer Book. The standard pattern set out in the English Prayer Books was that the Litany followed Morning Prayer, but the American Prayer Book tradition de-coupled the Litany from its usual standard times, and permitted it to be tacked on the end of both Morning and Evening Prayer and the beginning of the Communion service. What the 1979 and 2019 Prayer Books have done is simply chop off the end of the Litany and the beginning of the Communion service so they run into one another more smoothly and briefly.
The second natural place to stop is on page 97; this seems to be the default expected use of the Litany in the 2019 Book. One who is used to the 1662 Prayer Book Litany may be surprised here: why has the traditional ending been chopped off? This goes back at least to the 1928 Prayer Book (or maybe earlier; I haven’t checked), where a rubric on its 58th page notes that the majority of the last two pages of the Litany may be omitted. This last section has been given a section heading in modern prayer books: “The Supplication.”
The longest form of the Litany includes The Supplication, skipping the top half of page 97 and concluding on page 98.
That’s weird. How should I choose?
Well, it depends upon the situation. If you’re planning the Sunday morning worship service and you want to include the Great Litany, the easiest way to start your congregation out with it is to attach it to the service they’re most familiar with: so either as a special extended ending for Morning Prayer or a special prefix for the Communion service. The rubric on page 97 also states that the Supplication portion is especially appropriate in times of war, or of great anxiety, or of disaster. So, like, right now. We’re in the midst of a pandemic, race riots and protests are rocking the country, millions are unemployed or recovering from unemployment, and to top it all off it’s an election year. Pray the darn Supplication! We need it.
O Lord, arise and help us; And deliver us for your Name’s sake.
The single most time-consuming part of the Daily Office is the reading of the two lessons of Scripture. This indicates to the worshiper that this is a high point in the liturgy. Furthermore, where the majority of the liturgy is relatively static from day to day, the content of the lessons is appointed by a Daily Office Lectionary such that every morning and evening throughout the year has its own unique set of lessons. This suggests that the public reading of Scripture is even the highest point in the Office liturgy.
The tradition, with very few exceptions in modern Prayer Books, is that the first lesson is from the Old Testament and the second is from the New. This allows for multiple readings of the New Testament in a year (originally three, now two) and one read-through of the Old Testament in the year. Several chapters from several books have been omitted from the Daily Office Lectionary in every Prayer Book, most notably Leviticus, Numbers, and Ezekiel. Further examination on the lectionary itself will have to be provided later; here it should suffice to note that the basic pattern of Old & New Testament readings each day provides both a deep familiarity with the contents of the New Testament and a cursory-but-constant familiarity with the Old Testament.
Because the Daily Office Lectionary is designed to read through the Bible in continuous readings, there should be no attempt to harmonize the two lessons on any given day; they are independent of one another, and only overlap in theme or content on a very few holy days in the year.
Yesterday’s Collect of the Day, to be used throughout this week, is robust enough a prayer it could easily be a sermon in miniature.
Almighty and everlasting God, you are always more ready to hear than we to pray, and to give more than we either desire or deserve: Pour down upon us the abundance of your mercy, forgiving us those things of which our conscience is afraid, and giving us those good things for which we are not worthy to ask, except through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ our Savior; who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, for ever and ever. Amen.
It follows the classic formula for a Collect: Address, Petition, Purpose, Praise.
The Address: One could technically break this into two parts (Address & Attribute), since God is addressed and then described. This prayer describes him as more ready to hear and give than we are to pray and desire/deserve. This prayer asserts that God is better than us, kinder than us, more merciful, and loving. Divine condescension is more in our favor than we expect, or even want. This may be an echo of Isaiah 65:24, where God promises “Before they call I will answer.”
The Petition: This is simply a prayer for mercy. Like the Address & Attribute, this simple request is followed by a more elaborate “purpose” to explain the request and ground it in God’s being, or, more importantly for this form of prayer, linking the request back to the attributes of God previously detailed.
The Purpose: Forgiveness and “good things” are the purpose of God’s mercy in this case. We all sin, and we typically have secret sins that we keep to ourselves and are afraid to confess – to God or to others. Our conscience is afraid of what might happen if such darkness came to light. This prayer directs us to turn those sins and fears over to the Lord. Accompanying that is the request for good gifts that we don’t deserve – for which we are not even worthy to ask! – yet are promised in God. One can think of Sunday’s Old Testament lesson (in Year A) from 1 Kings 3 as an example, where God gives King Solomon riches and power beyond his deserving, and for which he didn’t even ask. We learn that, in Christ’s merit (sinlessness) and mediation (atonement on the Cross), we are made worthy of the greater honor of eternal life because he he has overcome the world (John 16:33).
The Praise: Like most Collects in the modern Prayer Book tradition, this Collect ends with a Trinitarian formula, praying through Christ to the Father in unity with the Holy Spirit.
As you can see, this could easily be an entire sermon in miniature. Indeed, the best of Collects are tiny expositions of the Scripture they are paired with. This, for example, was historically paired with 2 Corinthians 3:4-9 and Mark 7:31-37. That Epistle lesson addresses human unworthiness of God’s glory being overcome by the sufficiency of Christ’s atonement. The Gospel lesson is the story of Jesus healing someone who could not speak, and was therefore incapable of speaking for himself and asking for God to heal him. He had to be commended to Jesus by others. This, too, illustrates the point of the Collect and how our very salvation is not in our own hands. We did not, and could not, present ourselves to God with a worthy request for salvation; we were spiritually mute, or dead. It is God’s grace that reaches beyond the barrier of our unworthiness, often preempting our own impulse and initiative.
What rich theology and pastoral work these Collects contain!
Last year we looked at St. James Day with a nod to the Collect of the Day and a couple of the Scripture readings associated with this day. That’s worth a quick re-read in preparation for tomorrow’s holiday.
For today, though, I’d like to remind you of a tradition that has been a subtle part of Prayer Book practice, though not always explicit: the “Eve of” a holy day. You may be familiar with the Easter Vigil, or Christmas Eve. You may also be familiar with the fact that many (most?) Roman churches have a Saturday evening Mass in addition to Sunday morning. All of these are examples of “liturgical time” starting a day on the evening before, rather than on the morning of. This is part of the Church’s Hebrew legacy, wherein every “day” begins at sundown – though in Christian liturgy we only tend to do this for Sundays and other feast days.
The 2019 Prayer Book, explaining the calendar on page 687, makes this much explicit:
Following ancient Jewish tradition, the celebrations of any Sunday begins at sundown on the Saturday that precedes it. Therefore at Evening Prayer on Saturdays (other than Holy Days), the Collect appointed for the ensuing Sunday is used.
It does not go on to say that we are to apply this principle to the other Holy Days. But such an extension of the rule is not forbidden, and some Prayer Books in the past have operated that way, so it is a traditional option that we are free to make use of.
In short, applying these rules, here are the Collects of the Day for the Daily Office this weekend:
Friday Evening: Collect for Saint James Day or Proper 11
Hello hello everyone, another Thursday means another update to the Customary is up! The first half of the Evening Prayer liturgy is covered, now. You can check that out here: Customary: Evening Prayer
So you know what to expect, what these Customary pages are doing, basically, is walking through each section, header by header, in the worship service, and giving direction for when and how its rubrics and options may be implemented. For example, there are three Opening Sentences provided at the start of the liturgy, and an appendix with many more. How do you choose between all these sentences? This Customary can guide your choices, with a little bit of insight into why these patterns are being made.
Yes, many of these points are quite fine points of detail. And taken individually they are quite subtle and probably not easily realized what they’re doing. However, taken as a whole system, the aim of a Customary like this one to order the use of the Prayer Book by arranging the “small things” to echo a bigger picture – a life of worship rooted in Prayer Book tradition, general Western liturgical tradition, and sensible and intentional discipleship and spiritual formation.
Happy Saint Mary Magdalene Day! One of our scripture readings at Morning Prayer is special for observing this feast day: Luke 7:36-8:3. This is an interesting case, so let’s take a closer look.
Like several New Testament characters (most notoriously the various men named James), the identity of Mary Magdalene has undergone some scholarly debate. She has at times been identified as the same person as Mary of Bethany, though that theory is not in vogue today. She has also been identified as the woman who anointed Jesus’ feet with her hair and tears. I’m not sure how commonly-held this view is today, either, however, our Prayer Book does retain the possibility that this is true. The evidence, such as it is, can be found in the appointing of Luke 7:36-8:3 as a single lesson on her feast day.
The tail end of chapter 7 of St. Luke’s Gospel tells the story of “a woman of the city, who was a sinner” who brings an alabaster flask of ointment into a pharisee’s house to wash Jesus’ feet with it and her tears and kisses. An overkill scenario to a sensibility for sure, but it is unmistakably a picture of unadulterated love. Jesus uses this immediately as an illustration for a parable. He concludes with a word of gospel: “her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much; but he who is forgiven little, loves little.”
Chapter 8 then opens, “Soon afterward he went on through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. And the twelve were with him, and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out… and many others, who provided for them out of their means.” There is no explicit connection between the woman in the previous story and Mary Magdalene here, but the ancient writing style might imply that the previously-unnamed woman is now a named follower of Jesus. After all, if Mary Magdalene was able to bring expensive perfume to the literal feet of Jesus, she must have been a woman of some means, and likely able to continue providing for him and apostles, as verse 3 describes. And there are other instances in the New Testament where people refer to themselves very obliquely (like Mark and John), and refer to others by differing names (Nathaniel = Bartholomew, and Thaddeus = Jude).
At the very least, the woman of Luke 7 has a similar spirituality to Mary Magdalene: both are very emotive and physical about their love for Jesus. Perhaps you know the sort in your own church or Christian connections: people (usually women) who have such a profound emotional love for Jesus, who smile at his name and sigh with arms outstretched as if they’re in love. For those who are more intellectually-minded it can be easy to scoff at these enthusiasts and their apparent crush on Jesus. But the woman who anointed Jesus’ feet with perfume, tears, and kisses, and Mary Magdalene clinging to Jesus in the garden after his resurrection both testify to a legitimate spirituality of emotive love and adoration. If the woman of Luke 7 and Mary Magdalene are not the same person, they sure had a lot in common.
So let’s take a look at how this feast day – and theory of Mary’s identity – can play into the liturgy of the Church. There is a song I came across in the Saint Dunstan Hymnal (related to the Saint Dunstan Plainsong Psalter) which is an Office Hymn from the 17th century, and it illustrates a way of acknowledging her spirituality and example.
O Father of celestial rays, When thou on Magdalene dost gaze,
The flame of burning love appears, Her icy heart dissolves in tears.
Wounded by love, she hastens o’er The feet of Christ her tears to pour, Anoints them, wipes them with her hair, And prints adoring kisses there.
Fearless, the Cross she will not leave: And grieving, to the Tomb doth cleave: No ruthless soldiers cause her dread: For from her love all fear hath fled.
O Christ, true Charity thou art; Purge thou the foulest of our heart, Fill ev’ry soul with grace and love, And give us thy rewards above.
All laud to God the Father be; All praise, eternal Son, to thee; All glory as is ever meet, To God the Holy Paraclete. Amen.
The testimony of her devoted love ranges from the time of her conversion and repentance, through the Cross, to Jesus’ resurrection. “For from her love all fear hath fled”, applying in her example the teaching perfect love casts out all fear (1 John 4:18).
This example she has left us is valuable. You can love God with your emotion. Your devotions can be expensive and extravagant, if that is your honest offering. God’s love, mercy, kindness, and forgiveness should have a serious impact on the sinner’s outlook. The more you realize how much has been forgiven, the more you can love God and others in return. For all the intellectual considerations of right doctrine, and all the logistical considerations of right worship, the value of a exultant heart can never be overlooked. The Gospel is worth “thinking about” correctly, yes, absolutely; but it is also worth celebrating with the fullness of human emotion.
For three millennia psalmody has been at the heart of godly worship. King David is honored as the great psalmist in the Hebrew tradition, but many of the 150 Psalms are products of later centuries, and at least one is purported to be much older – a product of the hand of Moses. Synagogue worship perhaps codified the chanting of psalms in a standard liturgy, inherited by the Early Church and preserved in both cathedral and monastic traditions.
In the Rule of Saint Benedict, after a rough outline of how all 150 Psalms are to be ordered throughout the week, Benedict observes “our holy forefathers promptly fulfilled in one day what we lukewarm monks should, please God, perform at least in a week.” The rigors of the Desert Fathers, praying all the psalms daily, and of Benedictine Monasticism, praying all the psalms weekly, were simplified by Archbishop Cranmer into a 30-day cycle, which endures in the Prayer Book tradition to this day, although most 20th century Prayer Books have offered even lighter orders for daily Psalmody.
The text of the Prayer Book Psalter is the translation of Miles Coverdale’s 16th century English Bible, remaining in Prayer Book use despite the several revisions of the Bible leading to the Authorized Version under King James I. With minor changes to spelling and vocabulary, the Coverdale Psalter endured until a new translation was provided for the 1979 Prayer Book. Some elements of the 1979 Psalter have been retained in the 2019 Book, most notably in the Suffrages of Morning and Evening Prayer, but the text of our Psalter itself has been rolled back to a modernized version of Coverdale’s translation rather than an entirely new version.
In Benedictine and Roman tradition, the psalms were said with antiphons, but the Prayer Book tradition has not retained them. It has, however, retained the tradition of reciting the Gloria Patri after each Psalm. This helps the worshiper “Christianize” the Psalms, recognizing that we are praising the triune God revealed in all of Scripture, not simply repeating the songs of ancient Israel. The first American Prayer Book in 1790 rendered the Gloria Patri optional, provided it was said at least at the end of the Psalms Appointed. In the 1979 Book the rubrics indicated the Gloria Patri was to be said once only at the end of the Psalms, which remains the default in the 2019 Book, although a rubric on page 734 permits the Gloria Patri to be said at the end of each Psalm if desired.
In the back of my mind, there are three times of year that stand out as being particularly saturated with significant Saints’ Days: Christmas, mid-November, and late July. I haven’t studied the sanctoral calendar closely to see how accurate these impressions are, but I think it’s worth pointing it out now that we’re in one of those periods of time.
Consider this. Three major feast days are just ahead:
St. Mary Magdalene (22 July)
St. James (25 July)
The Transfiguration (6 August)
Among the Optional Commemorations there are four coming up that this Customary particularly highlights as feasts to be kept:
St. Gregory of Nyssa (19 July)
The Parents of the Virgin Mary (26 July)
Sts. Lazarus, Mary, and Martha of Bethany (29 July)
St. Joseph of Arimathea (1 August)
There are also some classical Saints’ days worth considering:
St. Macrina (18 July)
St. Margaret of Antioch (20 July)
St. Thomas a Kempis (24 July)
And a few more recent folks remembered in our calendar:
William White (17 July)
William Reed Huntington (27 July)
William Wilberforce (30 July)
Huh, maybe I should’ve named this post “Williamtide”, haha.
Let us also consider jotting down a new name into our calendars, remembering another faithful servant who ran his course well:
17 July: J. I. Packer, Priest and Teacher of the Faith, 2020